Landscape Sensors

/Landscape Sensors
Landscape Sensors 2017-07-19T10:36:39+00:00

Landscape sensors installed to the geoscientific research field Koppl are part of the research infrastructure allocated at the Interfaculty Department of Geoinformatics – Z_GIS, University of Salzburg. The whole system was setup by the Integrated Spatial Analysis Landscape Lab and is based on low cost sensors and has been implemented on a platform independent and open source basis. Independent wireless transmission protocols (e.g. ZigBee, GPRS/3G) are used to provide near real-time measurements in the OGC compliant data encodings Observations & Measurements and Water Markup Language 2.0. The sensor specific metadata is available in Sensor Markup Language. Energy autarchy is ensured with solar panels and batteries for all below mentioned stations.
Altogether ten stations measure climatological, hydrological, and pedological parameters, while the setup varies from their location. For the standard setup we developed a customized circuit board and wrote a firmware and processing algorithm working on the Libelium IDE. The circuit boards are connected to a Libelium WaspMote v1.2 board transmitting the measurements via the ZigBee protocol to the internet gateway. The latter is either a Libelium Meshlium or a Raspberry PI, both driven by a Linux operating platform.
The main station is the most complete and measureing to following parameters:

    • Mobotix Dual Night M12 camera (1x) for snow cover detection and security measures
    • Snow height sensor (1x Ultrasonic Snow Depth Sensor USH-8)
    • Snow Pack Analyser (SPA) with 2 bands measuring Snow Water Equivalents, Snow Density, and contents of liquid water and ice.
    • Davis Anemometer with wind speed (1x) and wind direction (1x)
    • Davis rain collector including a heating shield (1x)
    • Temperature sensors DS 1820-BT (6x) in -0.75, -0.50, and -0.25 cm depth and 0.02, and 2.00 height (the latter in a ventilated shield)
    • Relative Humidity sensor 808H5V5 (1x on Agriculture Board, 1x in ventilated shield)
    • Atmospheric Pressure Sensor – MPX4115A (1x)
    • Soil moisture Decagon 10HS (3x) in -0.75, -0.50, -0.25 cm depth
    • Water level sensor Q-PS (monovalent 1x) or Q-PSB (bivalent 1x)
    • Solar Radiation Sensor PAR (SQ-110) (1x)

Eight side stations contribute with the following sensors from the 6km2 small catchment:

    • Davis Anemometer with wind speed (1x) and wind direction (1x)
    • Davis rain collector (1x)
    • Temperature sensors DS 1820-BT (6x) in -0.75, -0.50, and -0.25 cm depth and 0.02, and 2.00 height (the latter in a ventilated shield)
    • Soil moisture Decagon 10HS (3x) in -0.75, -0.50, -0.25 cm depth
    • One station integrating either the water level sensor Q-PS (monovalent 1x) or Q-PSB (bivalent 1x)

One side station placed at the catchment outlet comprises:

    • Sontek IQ plus water discharge measureing horizontally and vertically integrated velocity measurement and water level measured by vertical beam and pressure sensor
    • A Systea Water Insitu Analyser (WIZ) taking water samples for place independent phosphorus (total phosphorus, orthophosphate [PO43-], and soluble phosphorus).